The fast-paced and urgent documentary Navalny arrives on the Vineyard next week, revealing the harrowing story of the titular Russian dissident’s poisoning and imprisonment.

The film presents Alexei Navalny — widely considered the leading opposition figure in Russia’s autocratic political system — as a resolute and brave figure, committed to challenging the authoritarian rule of Vladimir Putin. It will premiere as part of the Martha’s Vineyard Film Festival on Tuesday at the Performing Arts Center in Oak Bluffs.

Specifically, the feature-length film captures the aftermath of a failed assassination attempt on Mr. Navalny, and the hunt to prove that the Russian government was responsible.

“[Mr. Navalny] entered politics very idealistically,” Academy-Award-nominated producer Shane Boris said. “He grew up near Chernobyl and became cynical about politicians. His mission is to combat all of the lies and half-truths of politicians.”

Mr. Boris worked alongside director Daniel Roher, who sat down with Mr. Navalny during his recovery from poisoning by the nerve agent Novichok, capturing brief moments of peace with his family and showcasing his offbeat sense of humor.

“The film follows him recovering in Germany. We have fly-on-the-wall interviews with him that are very intimate and show who he is in his daily life,” Mr. Boris said.

The peacefulness of his recovery in a small German town is contrasted in the film by his team’s dogged attempts to trace the poison back to the FSB, the Russian government’s security service.

The film is being distributed by CNN Films and received a theatrical release after winning the Audience Award at the U.S. documentary competition at the Sundance Film Festival. It concludes with Mr. Navalny’s stunning decision to return to Russia, knowing full well that he will immediately face imprisonment, and possibly death.

“Alexei is more than anything an advocate for bringing people together,” Mr. Boris said, praising Mr. Navalny’s bravery. “He has dedicated himself to what he believes is the most urgent problem the world is facing right now—as is evident in Ukraine—which is the regime of Vladimir Putin.”

The Martha’s Vineyard Film Festival screens Navalny on July 26 at 7 p.m. the Performing Arts Center. A discussion after the film will feature Mr. Navalny’s daughter, Dasha Navalnaya, along with the film’s director and producers.