If you think sandpipers and sparrows are difficult to identify, you have not tried hummingbirds.

Nelson’s sparrows are one of the smallest and most secretive sparrows.

The shorebird nesting season is long over and most of the nesting species are long gone to their more southern non-breeding season homes.

On Sept. 23, Jeff Bernier found a juvenile Hudsonian godwit.

For a number of weeks this column has detailed two completely unexpected species: one white pelican and two common ravens.

There were only two pairs of osprey nesting on Martha’s Vineyard in 1970. This year there were 89 breeding pairs.